Research and development
|Updated: 27.10.2016 - Next update: 26.10.2017|
Research and development expenditure sank below three per cent of gross domestic product
According to Statistics Finland, research and development expenditure amounted to EUR 6.1 billion in 2015. Expenditure went down by EUR 440 million from the year before. Business enterprises&investments in product development decreased by EUR 360 million or good eight per cent, the electrical and electronics industry dropped by EUR 440 million. In the university sector, R&D expenditure remained almost unchanged, but in the research institutes and other public sector, the relative decrease in R&D expenditure was larger than that of enterprises, EUR 70 million or over 11 per cent.
Statistics Finland / Research and development
Description of indicator
Research and development activity (R&D) is understood as systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge and use it to devise new applications. The defining criterion is that the purpose of the activity should be the presence of an appreciable element of novelty. Research and development activity includes basic research, applied research and experimental development.
The significance of research knowledge in the development of society and the economy has continually grown. This in turn increases the significance of cooperation and networking both between the public and the private sectors and within sectors. Through globalisation and international development, knowledge and expertise in its different forms have become key factors in the development of societies, which in turn is reflected in a consistent growth of research efforts. In addition to economic growth, an effective and efficient national innovation system is also increasingly considered to be a key factor in creating social wellbeing.
As an extensive entity, Finlands R&D activity consists of the producers of new knowledge and expertise, those who utilise them, and the diverse interactions between them. A broad-based innovation policy supports the renewal of different policy sectors through innovation activities. The effects are evident in the social welfare and health sector, the energy and transport sector and in the development of the information society, education and the regions. The multidisciplinary nature of social problems nowadays requires multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research.